Major depression, also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression, is classified as a type of affective disorder or mood disorder that goes beyond the day’s ordinary ups and downs, becoming a serious medical condition. Major depression can occur once or a number of times in a lifetime. Major depression increases a person’s risk of suicide.
Unlike normal emotional experiences of sadness, loss, or passing mood states, major depression is persistent and can significantly interfere with an individual’s thoughts, behavior, mood, activity, and physical health.
Major depression is only one type of depressive disorder. Major depression can occur once, as a result of a significant psychological trauma, respond to treatment, and never occur again within your lifetime. This would be a single episode depression. These symptoms include feeling sad, hopeless, worthless, or pessimistic. In addition, people with major depression often have behavior changes, such as new eating and sleeping patterns.
Major depression can occur in children and teenagers, and they can also benefit from treatment. Men who suffer from major depression are less likely to seek help or even talk about their experience.
Signs of depression in men are more often irritability, anger, or drug and alcohol abuse.
The exact cause of depression is not known. Many researchers believe it is caused by chemical imbalances in the brain, which may be hereditary or caused by events in a person’s life.
If depression is very severe, it may be accompanied by psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. These are usually consistent with the depressed mood, and may focus on themes of guilt, personal inadequacy, or disease. Many people with dysthymia also experience major depressive episodes at some time in their lives. Depression can be treated in a variety of ways, particularly with medications and counseling.
Causes of Major depression
The common causes and risk factor’s of Major depression:
- Genetics or stress.
- A family history of illness.
- Serious illnesses such as diabetes, cancer and arthritis.
- Relationship problems.
- Alcohol or illegal drugs.
Symptoms of Major depression
Some sign and symptom related to Major depression are as follows:
- Excessive sleeping.
- Exhaustion on waking.
- Feelings of worthlessness, self-hate, and inappropriate guilt
- Extreme difficulty concentrating.
- Inability to experience pleasure.
- Thoughts of death or suicide.
Treatment of Major depression
- Depression can be treated in a variety of ways, particularly with medications and counseling.
- Depression is usually treated successfully with professional counseling, antidepressant medication, or a combination of the two.
- Electroconvulsive therapy, may be used when chemical treatment fails.
- Medications include tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and some newer antidepressant drugs.
- People with depression usually can be treated as outpatients, but in severe cases a period of hospitalization may be necessary.